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The analysis of I/O schedulers(3) [复制链接]

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发表于 2010-02-05 16:03 |显示全部楼层
The analysis of I/O schedulers(3)
       
       
       
       
CFQ
CFQ is the
default I/O scheduler in the current Linux. Its full name is
Completed Fairness Queuing. In my opinion, the most important work
for the CFQ is to keep every process has the same fairness to use the
I/O bandwidth. Here we do not discuss the processes with different
priority. Since CFQ is developed after AS(I am not sure, just guess),
if AS is because of anticipation, CFQ is also a kind of anticipation.
Let's describe it in general way first. There is a parameter named
slice_sync(async is out of our discuss area), you can consider it as
time slice. In order to keep fairness, every process should have the
same time to make use of I/O bandwidth. So, the processes are
inserted into a round-robin list, each process has a time slice to
use I/O, one after another. However, in practice, there are always
many exceptions need to be considered. First, Suppose during a time
slice of a process, there is no I/O request, should the I/O scheduler
begin to serve another process or wait? If wait, how long should the
process be waited for? Also, still in a time slice, even if there are
request from this process, but the accession pattern of this process
is very random, the interval distance between each requests is very
very large, should this process continue to be served? The mechanism
of CFQ to wait is almost the same as AS. Let's discuss it in detail.
The first
data structure is service_tree, as I have said, the processes should
be put into a round-robin like list. In practice, this is red-black
tree. I think this makes sense, the left most element is the first to
be served, and the right most element is the last. So, service_tree
is actually a red black tree in which contains all processes. The
data structure for each process is cfqq, in another word, the
requests from different processes should be inserted into their own
queues. Each process has its own queue. And these queues are inserted
into service_tree of cfqd. Interestingly, in each cfqq, the algorithm
is almost the same as AS. As you might remember, there are two queues
in AS, one is sorted queue, the other is expired queue. The queue of
cfqq is the same, it is actually two queues, one is cfqq->sort_list,
the other is cfqq->fifo queue. In order to describe it skimpily, I
just use one queue to explain. The mechanism is the same with AS for
each cfqq. In order to simplify the procure, I use my own way to
describe how to add a new request into cfq “queue”.
/*
When
the CFQ receives a new request, this routine will be invoked.
*/
static
void cfq_insert_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
{
….
cfq_add_rq_rb(rq);
// [color="#0000ff"]Add the request to cfqq's sort_list queue
list_add_tail(&rq->queuelist,
&cfqq->fifo);
// Add the request to
cfqq's fifo queue
cfq_rq_enqueued(cfqd,
cfqq, rq); // Update think_time and seek_time,
the same as AS

}
static
void cfq_add_rq_rb(struct request *rq)
{
        /*
         *
looks a little odd, but the first insert might return an alias.
         *
if that happens, put the alias on the dispatch list
         */
//
elv_rb_add is the routine which adds the
request to the sort queue of cfqq
        while
((__alias = elv_rb_add(&cfqq->sort_list, rq)) != NULL)
               
cfq_dispatch_insert(cfqd->queue,
__alias);
// if
cfqq itself is not in service_tree of cfqd, add it to this tree.
        if
(!cfq_cfqq_on_rr(cfqq))
                cfq_add_cfqq_rr(cfqd,
cfqq);
        /*
         *
check if this request is a better next-serve candidate
         */
// almost
the same algorithm as AS, you can get it easily by reading the source
code.
        cfqq->next_rq
= cfq_choose_req(cfqd, cfqq->next_rq, rq);
        BUG_ON(!cfqq->next_rq);
}
Since we
have discussed the insight mechanism of AS, it is much easier for us
to understand what the CFQ has done. We pass the anticipation part of
CFQ since it is the same as AS. Now, we start to discuss how cfq
selects requests to dispatch.
Let's see
the main source code of it:
static int
cfq_dispatch_requests(struct request_queue *q, int force)
{
….
        while
((cfqq = cfq_select_queue(cfqd)) != NULL) {
….
                dispatched
+= __cfq_dispatch_requests(cfqd, cfqq, max_dispatch);
        }
….
        return
dispatched;
}
From the
source code above, it is very easy for us to understand the flow of
CFQ. The I/O scheduler first selects a cfqq, then, dispatches the
requests on the queue to device driver, here I don't list the source
code of __cfq_dispatch_requests, because it is easy to understand by
reading the source code. There is a parameter named max_dispatch, the
default value is 4, which means at one time, the maximum number of
requests of a cfqq to be dispatched into device driver is 4. If the
requests are just sync, actually, there is at most one request in the
cfqq. Anyway, the time for dispatching just 4 requests is very short,
it is usually several ms(I guess, may be less), but the default
slice_sync is 100, which means the time slice for each process is
100ms, which is much longer than several ms. So, after each small
period of dispatching, the CFQ should decide which queue should be
served next. Let's analysis this insight mechanism.
/*
the
decision for which cfqq to be dispatched is made from this routine.
*/
static
struct cfq_queue *cfq_select_queue(struct cfq_data *cfqd)
{
        struct
cfq_queue *cfqq;
/*
If
there is no active_queue, try to select a new queue, actually, get
the left most cfqq from service_tree of cfqd.
*/
        cfqq
= cfqd->active_queue;
        if
(!cfqq)
                goto
new_queue;
        /*
         *
The active queue has run out of time, expire it and select new.
         */
        if
(cfq_slice_used(cfqq))
                goto
expire;
        /*
         *
The active queue has requests and isn't expired, allow it to
         *
dispatch.
         */
// there
is at least one request in the queue, keep the queue
        if
(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&cfqq->sort_list))
                goto
keep_queue;
        /*
         *
No requests pending. If the active queue still has requests in
         *
flight or is idling for a new request, allow either of these
         *
conditions to happen (or time out) before selecting a new queue.
         */
//
timer_pending means there is a queue which is
doing anticipation
//
cfqq->dispatched means there is at least one
request being serving in device driver
// Like
AS, from evaluating ttime_mean, the enable_idle is set.
        if
(timer_pending(&cfqd->idle_slice_timer) ||
            (cfqq->dispatched
&& cfq_cfqq_idle_window(cfqq))) {
                cfqq
= NULL;
                goto
keep_queue;
        }
expire:
        cfq_slice_expired(cfqd,
0);
new_queue:
        cfqq
= cfq_set_active_queue(cfqd);
keep_queue:
        return
cfqq;
}
Finally,
let's answer the questions:
The CFQ
has the same mechanism to do anticipation like AS in a single cfqq.
So, during a time slice, if there is no request from a cfqq, the CFQ
might wait for a moment, it depends on the ttime_mean just the same
like AS.
Whenever
there is a new request to the CFQ, CFQ will check whether it is worth
to preempt the original cfqq, a routine called cfq_should_preempt
just do this job. There are some check conditions, one of them is
seek_mean. In other word, if the original cfqq does not have access
locality, which means seek_mean is very large, this cfqq might be
preempted by other cfqq.

               
               
               

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