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紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙 [复制链接]

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发表于 2004-12-14 11:25 |显示全部楼层
昨天,同学要装gentoo,但他的机器比较慢,现在又没有时间编译
我就想了个办法把我的硬盘挂到他的机器上,然后启动到我的一个后备系统下
再把我的主系统cp -a全拷给他(我们的硬件配置差不多)

挂好硬盘,设好jump,顺利进入系统,我的盘是/dev/hda他的是hdb,hdb5是要设成swap分区的,我就mkswap /dev/hdb5,但敲成了/dev/hda5,一字之差,我后悔啊(hda5是我的主系统分区啊)

我想数据应该还没丢吧,只是一秒钟的事,mkswap就做完了
有什么方法恢复吗?

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发表于 2004-12-14 17:03 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

这个我没有试过 如果mkswap只是修改了文件分配表,没有动里面数据的话,可能还有救。
可以试试用fdisk /dev/hdb,用t命令把/dev/hda5重新改成extX格式的(82),w存盘。然后你试一试mount挂载,看有没有东西。如果这样不行的话可能就很难办了。

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发表于 2004-12-14 17:48 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

原帖由 "jgj" 发表:
这个我没有试过 如果mkswap只是修改了文件分配表,没有动里面数据的话,可能还有救。
可以试试用fdisk /dev/hdb,用t命令把/dev/hda5重新改成extX格式的(82),w存盘。然后你试一试mount挂载,看有没有东西。如果�.........

fdisk -l显示的还是83,没有编成82啊,分区表好象没动哦

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发表于 2004-12-14 18:29 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

是吗?待俺查一下mkswap的源码
你确信没再做其它的操作是吧。

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发表于 2004-12-14 19:41 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

mkswap把文件系统的1025-4096字节清了0,然后在最后写了个长度为10的字符串“SWAPSPACE2”。这个地方正是Ext2的SuperBlock,看来比较麻烦。其它地方都没动,所以mkswap执行速度很快。

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发表于 2004-12-14 20:38 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

[quote]原帖由 "jgj"]mkswap把文件系统的1025-4096字节清了0,然后在最后写了个长度为10的字符串“SWAPSPACE2”。这个地方正是Ext2的SuperBlock,看来比较麻烦。其它地方都没动,所以mkswap执行速度很快。[/quote 发表:

从发现敲错了字母后我一直没敢动过那个分区

btw 兄台有mkswap的源码么?能否告诉我在哪儿能找到?或者直接发给我也行
nait83@126.com
thx very much

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发表于 2004-12-14 23:06 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

Red Hat的源代码在util-linux包里,disk-utils的mkswap.c。

/*
* mkswap.c - set up a linux swap device
*
* (C) 1991 Linus Torvalds. This file may be redistributed as per
* the Linux copyright.
*/

/*
* 20.12.91  -        time began. Got VM working yesterday by doing this by hand.
*
* Usage: mkswap [-c] [-vN] [-f] device [size-in-blocks]
*
*        -c   for readability checking. (Use it unless you are SURE!)
*        -vN  for swap areas version N. (Only N=0,1 known today.)
*      -f   for forcing swap creation even if it would smash partition table.
*
* The device may be a block device or an image of one, but this isn't
* enforced (but it's not much fun on a character device :-).
*
* Patches from jaggy@purplet.demon.co.uk (Mike Jagdis) to make the
* size-in-blocks parameter optional added Wed Feb  8 10:33:43 1995.
*
* Version 1 swap area code (for kernel 2.1.117), aeb, 981010.
*
* Sparc fixes, jj@ultra.linux.cz (Jakub Jelinek), 981201 - mangled by aeb.
* V1_MAX_PAGES fixes, jj, 990325.
* sparc64 fixes, jj, 000219.
*
* 1999-02-22 Arkadiusz Mi秌iewicz <misiek@pld.ORG.PL>;
* - added Native Language Support
*
*/

#include <stdio.h>;
#include <unistd.h>;
#include <string.h>;
#include <fcntl.h>;
#include <stdlib.h>;
#include <sys/ioctl.h>;                /* for _IO */
#include <sys/utsname.h>;
#include <sys/stat.h>;
#include "nls.h"

/* Try to get PAGE_SIZE from libc or kernel includes */
#ifdef HAVE_sys_user_h
                                /* Note: <sys/user.h>; says: for gdb only */
#include <sys/user.h>;                /* for PAGE_SIZE and PAGE_SHIFT */
#else
#ifdef HAVE_asm_page_h
#include <asm/page.h>;                /* for PAGE_SIZE and PAGE_SHIFT */
                                /* we also get PAGE_SIZE via getpagesize() */
#endif
#endif

#ifndef _IO
/* pre-1.3.45 */
#define BLKGETSIZE 0x1260
#else
/* same on i386, m68k, arm; different on alpha, mips, sparc, ppc */
#define BLKGETSIZE _IO(0x12,96)
#endif

static char * program_name = "mkswap";
static char * device_name = NULL;
static int DEV = -1;
static long PAGES = 0;
static int check = 0;
static int badpages = 0;
static int version = -1;

#define MAKE_VERSION(p,q,r)        (65536*(p) + 256*(q) + (r))

static int
linux_version_code(void) {
        struct utsname my_utsname;
        int p, q, r;

        if (uname(&my_utsname) == 0) {
                p = atoi(strtok(my_utsname.release, "."));
                q = atoi(strtok(NULL, "."));
                r = atoi(strtok(NULL, "."));
                return MAKE_VERSION(p,q,r);
        }
        return 0;
}

#ifdef __sparc__
# ifdef __arch64__
#  define is_sparc64() 1
#  define is_be64() 1
# else /* sparc32 */
static int
is_sparc64(void) {
        struct utsname un;
        static int sparc64 = -1;

        if (sparc64 != -1) return sparc64;
        sparc64 = 0;

        if (uname(&un) < 0) return 0;
        if (! strcmp(un.machine, "sparc64")) {
                sparc64 = 1;
                return 1;
        }
        if (strcmp(un.machine, "sparc"))
                return 0; /* Should not happen */

#ifdef HAVE_personality
        {
                extern int personality(unsigned long);
                int oldpers;
#define PERS_LINUX          0x00000000
#define PERS_LINUX_32BIT    0x00800000
#define PERS_LINUX32        0x00000008

                oldpers = personality(PERS_LINUX_32BIT);
                if (oldpers != -1) {
                        if (personality(PERS_LINUX) != -1) {
                                uname(&un);
                                if (! strcmp(un.machine, "sparc64")) {
                                        sparc64 = 1;
                                        oldpers = PERS_LINUX32;
                                }
                        }
                        personality(oldpers);
                }
        }
#endif

        return sparc64;
}
#  define is_be64() is_sparc64()
# endif /* sparc32 */
#else /* !sparc */
# define is_be64() 0
#endif

/*
* The definition of the union swap_header uses the constant PAGE_SIZE.
* Unfortunately, on some architectures this depends on the hardware model,
* and can only be found at run time -- we use getpagesize(), so that
* we do not need separate binaries e.g. for sun4, sun4c/d/m and sun4u.
*
* Even more unfortunately, getpagesize() does not always return
* the right information. For example, libc4 and libc5 do not use
* the system call but invent a value themselves
* (EXEC_PAGESIZE or NBPG * CLSIZE or NBPC), and thus it may happen
* that e.g. on a sparc PAGE_SIZE=4096 and getpagesize() returns 8192.
* What to do? Let us allow the user to specify the pagesize explicitly.
*/

static int user_pagesize = 0;
static int kernel_pagesize;           /* obtained via getpagesize(); */
static int defined_pagesize = 0;   /* PAGE_SIZE, when that exists */
static int pagesize;
static long *signature_page;

struct swap_header_v1 {
        char         bootbits[1024];    /* Space for disklabel etc. */
        unsigned int version;
        unsigned int last_page;
        unsigned int nr_badpages;
        unsigned int padding[125];
        unsigned int badpages[1];
} *p;

static void
init_signature_page(void) {
#ifdef PAGE_SIZE
        defined_pagesize = PAGE_SIZE;
#endif
        kernel_pagesize = getpagesize();
        pagesize = kernel_pagesize;

        if (user_pagesize) {
                if ((user_pagesize & (user_pagesize-1)) ||
                    user_pagesize < 1024) {
                        fprintf(stderr, _("Bad user-specified page size %d\n"),
                                user_pagesize);
                        exit(1);
                }
                pagesize = user_pagesize;
        }

        if (user_pagesize && user_pagesize != kernel_pagesize &&
            user_pagesize != defined_pagesize)
                fprintf(stderr, _("Using user-specified page size %d, "
                                  "instead of the system values %d/%d\n"),
                        pagesize, kernel_pagesize, defined_pagesize);
        else if (defined_pagesize && pagesize != defined_pagesize)
                fprintf(stderr, _("Assuming pages of size %d (not %d)\n"),
                        pagesize, defined_pagesize);

        signature_page = (long *) malloc(pagesize);
        memset(signature_page,0,pagesize);
        p = (struct swap_header_v1 *) signature_page;
}

static void
write_signature(char *sig) {
        char *sp = (char *) signature_page;

        strncpy(sp+pagesize-10, sig, 10);
}

#define V0_MAX_PAGES        (8 * (pagesize - 10))
/* Before 2.2.0pre9 */
#define V1_OLD_MAX_PAGES        ((0x7fffffff / pagesize) - 1)
/* Since 2.2.0pre9:
   error if nr of pages >;= SWP_OFFSET(SWP_ENTRY(0,~0UL))
   with variations on
        #define SWP_ENTRY(type,offset) (((type) << 1) | ((offset) << 8))
        #define SWP_OFFSET(entry) ((entry) >;>; 8)
   on the various architectures. Below the result - yuk.

   Machine        pagesize        SWP_ENTRY        SWP_OFFSET        bound+1        oldbound+2
   i386                2^12                o<<8                e>;>;8                1<<24        1<<19
   mips                2^12                o<<15                e>;>;15                1<<17        1<<19
   alpha        2^13                o<<40                e>;>;40                1<<24        1<<18
   m68k                2^12                o<<12                e>;>;12                1<<20        1<<19
   sparc        2^{12,13}        (o&0x3ffff)<<9        (e>;>;9)&0x3ffff        1<<18        1<<{19,18}
   sparc64        2^13                o<<13                e>;>;13                1<<51        1<<18
   ppc                2^12                o<<8                e>;>;8                1<<24        1<<19
   armo                2^{13,14,15}        o<<8                e>;>;8                1<<24        1<<{18,17,16}
   armv                2^12                o<<9                e>;>;9                1<<23        1<<19

   assuming that longs have 64 bits on alpha and sparc64 and 32 bits elsewhere.

   The bad part is that we need to know this since the kernel will
   refuse a swap space if it is too large.
*/
/* patch from jj - why does this differ from the above? */
/* 32bit kernels have a second limitation of 2GB, sparc64 is limited by
   the size of virtual address space allocation for vmalloc */
#if defined(__alpha__)
#define V1_MAX_PAGES           ((1 << 24) - 1)
#elif defined(__mips__)
#define V1_MAX_PAGES           ((1 << 17) - 1)
#elif defined(__sparc__)
#define V1_MAX_PAGES           (is_sparc64() ? ((3 << 29) - 1) : ((1 << 18) - 1))
#elif defined(__ia64__)
/*
* The actual size will depend on the amount of virtual address space
* available to vmalloc the swap map.
*/
#define V1_MAX_PAGES          ((1UL << 54) - 1)
#else
#define V1_MAX_PAGES           V1_OLD_MAX_PAGES
#endif
/* man page now says:
The maximum useful size of a swap area now depends on the architecture.
It is roughly 2GB on i386, PPC, m68k, ARM, 1GB on sparc, 512MB on mips,
128GB on alpha and 3TB on sparc64.
*/

#define MAX_BADPAGES        ((pagesize-1024-128*sizeof(int)-10)/sizeof(int))

/*
* One more point of lossage - Linux swapspace really is a mess.
* The definition of the bitmap used is architecture dependent,
* and requires one to know whether the machine is bigendian,
* and if so, whether it will use 32-bit or 64-bit units in
* test_bit().
* davem writes: "... is based upon an unsigned long type of
* the cpu and the native endianness".
* So, it seems we can write `unsigned long' below.
* However, sparc64 uses 64-bit units in the kernel, while
* mkswap may have been translated with 32-bit longs. Thus,
* we need an explicit test for version 0 swap on sparc64.
*/

static void
bit_set (unsigned long *addr, unsigned int nr) {
        unsigned int r, m;

        if(is_be64()) {
                unsigned long long *bitmap = (unsigned long long *) addr;
                unsigned long long bitnum = (unsigned long long) nr;
                unsigned long long rl, ml;

                bitmap += bitnum / (8 * sizeof(long long));
                rl = *bitmap;
                ml = 1ULL << (bitnum &
                              (8ULL * (unsigned long long)sizeof(long long) - 1ULL));
                *bitmap = rl | ml;
                return;
        }

        addr += nr / (8 * sizeof(unsigned long));
        r = *addr;
        m = 1 << (nr & (8 * sizeof(unsigned long) - 1));
        *addr = r | m;
}

static int
bit_test_and_clear (unsigned long *addr, unsigned int nr) {
        unsigned int r, m;

        if(is_be64()) {
                unsigned long long *bitmap = (unsigned long long *) addr;
                unsigned long long bitnum = (unsigned long long) nr;
                unsigned long long rl, ml;

                bitmap += bitnum / (8 * sizeof(long long));
                rl = *bitmap;
                ml = 1ULL << (bitnum &
                              (8ULL * (unsigned long long)sizeof(long long) - 1ULL));
                *bitmap = rl & ~ml;
                return ((rl & ml) != 0ULL);
        }

        addr += nr / (8 * sizeof(unsigned long));
        r = *addr;
        m = 1 << (nr & (8 * sizeof(unsigned long) - 1));
        *addr = r & ~m;
        return (r & m) != 0;
}

static void
usage(void) {
        fprintf(stderr,
                _("Usage: %s [-c] [-v0|-v1] [-pPAGESZ] /dev/name [blocks]\n"),
                program_name);
        exit(1);
}

static void
die(const char *str) {
        fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n", program_name, str);
        exit(1);
}

static void
page_ok(int page) {
        if (version==0)
                bit_set(signature_page, page);
}

static void
page_bad(int page) {
        if (version == 0)
                bit_test_and_clear(signature_page, page);
        else {
                if (badpages == MAX_BADPAGES)
                        die(_("too many bad pages"));
                p->;badpages[badpages] = page;
        }
        badpages++;
}

static void
check_blocks(void) {
        unsigned int current_page;
        int do_seek = 1;
        char *buffer;

        buffer = malloc(pagesize);
        if (!buffer)
                die(_("Out of memory"));
        current_page = 0;
        while (current_page < PAGES) {
                if (!check) {
                        page_ok(current_page++);
                        continue;
                }
                if (do_seek && lseek(DEV,current_page*pagesize,SEEK_SET) !=
                    current_page*pagesize)
                        die(_("seek failed in check_blocks"));
                if ((do_seek = (pagesize != read(DEV, buffer, pagesize)))) {
                        page_bad(current_page++);
                        continue;
                }
                page_ok(current_page++);
        }
        if (badpages == 1)
                printf(_("one bad page\n"));
        else if (badpages >; 1)
                printf(_("%d bad pages\n"), badpages);
}

static long
valid_offset (int fd, off_t offset) {
        char ch;

        if (lseek (fd, offset, 0) < 0)
                return 0;
        if (read (fd, &ch, 1) < 1)
                return 0;
        return 1;
}

static off_t
find_size (int fd) {
        off_t high, low;

        low = 0;
        for (high = 1; high >; 0 && valid_offset (fd, high); high *= 2)
                low = high;
        while (low < high - 1) {
                const off_t mid = (low + high) / 2;

                if (valid_offset (fd, mid))
                        low = mid;
                else
                        high = mid;
        }
        return (low + 1);
}

/* return size in pages, to avoid integer overflow */
static long
get_size(const char  *file) {
        int        fd;
        long        size;

        fd = open(file, O_RDONLY);
        if (fd < 0) {
                perror(file);
                exit(1);
        }
        if (ioctl(fd, BLKGETSIZE, &size) >;= 0) {
                int sectors_per_page = pagesize/512;
                size /= sectors_per_page;
        } else {
                size = find_size(fd) / pagesize;
        }
        close(fd);
        return size;
}

static int
isnzdigit(char c) {
        return (c >;= '1' && c <= '9');
}

int
main(int argc, char ** argv) {
        struct stat statbuf;
        int i, sz;
        long maxpages;
        long goodpages;
        off_t offset;
        int force = 0;
        char *block_count = 0;
        char *pp;

        program_name = (argc && *argv) ? argv[0] : "fsck.minix";
        if ((pp = strrchr(program_name, '/')) != NULL)
                program_name = pp+1;

        setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
        bindtextdomain(PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);
        textdomain(PACKAGE);

        if (argc == 2 &&
            (!strcmp(argv[1], "-V") || !strcmp(argv[1], "--version"))) {
                printf(_("%s from %s\n"), program_name, util_linux_version);
                exit(0);
        }

        for (i=1; i<argc; i++) {
                if (argv[i][0] == '-') {
                        switch (argv[i][1]) {
                                case 'c':
                                        check=1;
                                        break;
                                case 'f':
                                        force=1;
                                        break;
                                case 'p':
                                        pp = argv[i]+2;
                                        if (!*pp && i+1 < argc)
                                                pp = argv[++i];
                                        if (isnzdigit(*pp))
                                                user_pagesize=atoi(pp);
                                        else
                                                usage();
                                        break;
                                case 'v':
                                        version = atoi(argv[i]+2);
                                        break;
                                default:
                                        usage();
                        }
                } else if (!device_name) {
                        device_name = argv[i];
                } else if (!block_count) {
                        block_count = argv[i];
                } else
                        usage();
        }

        init_signature_page();        /* get pagesize */

        if (!device_name) {
                fprintf(stderr,
                        _("%s: error: Nowhere to set up swap on?\n"),
                        program_name);
                usage();
        }
        if (block_count) {
                /* this silly user specified the number of blocks
                   explicitly */
                char *tmp;
                int blocks_per_page = pagesize/1024;
                PAGES = strtol(block_count,&tmp,0)/blocks_per_page;
                if (*tmp)
                        usage();
        }
        sz = get_size(device_name);
        if (!PAGES) {
                PAGES = sz;
        } else if (PAGES >; sz && !force) {
                fprintf(stderr,
                        _("%s: error: "
                          "size %ld is larger than device size %d\n"),
                        program_name,
                        PAGES*(pagesize/1024), sz*(pagesize/1024));
                exit(1);
        }

        if (version == -1) {
                /* use version 1 as default, if possible */
                if (PAGES <= V0_MAX_PAGES && PAGES >; V1_MAX_PAGES)
                        version = 0;
                else if (linux_version_code() < MAKE_VERSION(2,1,117))
                        version = 0;
                else if (pagesize < 2048)
                        version = 0;
                else
                        version = 1;
        }
        if (version != 0 && version != 1) {
                fprintf(stderr, _("%s: error: unknown version %d\n"),
                        program_name, version);
                usage();
        }
        if (PAGES < 10) {
                fprintf(stderr,
                        _("%s: error: swap area needs to be at least %ldkB\n"),
                        program_name, (long)(10 * pagesize / 1024));
                usage();
        }
#if 0
        maxpages = ((version == 0) ? V0_MAX_PAGES : V1_MAX_PAGES);
#else
        if (!version)
                maxpages = V0_MAX_PAGES;
        else if (linux_version_code() >;= MAKE_VERSION(2,2,1))
                maxpages = V1_MAX_PAGES;
        else {
                maxpages = V1_OLD_MAX_PAGES;
                if (maxpages >; V1_MAX_PAGES)
                        maxpages = V1_MAX_PAGES;
        }
#endif
        if (PAGES >; maxpages) {
                PAGES = maxpages;
                fprintf(stderr, _("%s: warning: truncating swap area to %ldkB\n"),
                        program_name, PAGES * pagesize / 1024);
        }

        DEV = open(device_name,O_RDWR);
        if (DEV < 0 || fstat(DEV, &statbuf) < 0) {
                perror(device_name);
                exit(1);
        }
        if (!S_ISBLK(statbuf.st_mode))
                check=0;
        else if (statbuf.st_rdev == 0x0300 || statbuf.st_rdev == 0x0340)
                die(_("Will not try to make swapdevice on '%s'"));

#ifdef __sparc__
        if (!force && version == 0) {
                /* Don't overwrite partition table unless forced */
                unsigned char *buffer = (unsigned char *)signature_page;
                unsigned short *q, sum;

                if (read(DEV, buffer, 512) != 512)
                        die(_("fatal: first page unreadable"));
                if (buffer[508] == 0xDA && buffer[509] == 0xBE) {
                        q = (unsigned short *)(buffer + 510);
                        for (sum = 0; q >;= (unsigned short *) buffer;)
                                sum ^= *q--;
                        if (!sum) {
                                fprintf(stderr, _("\
%s: Device '%s' contains a valid Sun disklabel.\n\
This probably means creating v0 swap would destroy your partition table\n\
No swap created. If you really want to create swap v0 on that device, use\n\
the -f option to force it.\n"),
                                        program_name, device_name);
                                exit(1);
                        }
                }
        }
#endif

        if (version == 0 || check)
                check_blocks();
        if (version == 0 && !bit_test_and_clear(signature_page,0))
                die(_("fatal: first page unreadable"));
        if (version == 1) {
                p->;version = version;
                p->;last_page = PAGES-1;
                p->;nr_badpages = badpages;
        }

        goodpages = PAGES - badpages - 1;
        if (goodpages <= 0)
                die(_("Unable to set up swap-space: unreadable"));
        printf(_("Setting up swapspace version %d, size = %lu KiB\n"),
                version, (unsigned long)goodpages * pagesize / 1024);
        write_signature((version == 0) ? "SWAP-SPACE" : "SWAPSPACE2");

        offset = ((version == 0) ? 0 : 1024);
        if (lseek(DEV, offset, SEEK_SET) != offset)
                die(_("unable to rewind swap-device"));
        if (write(DEV,(char*)signature_page+offset, pagesize-offset)
            != pagesize-offset)
                die(_("unable to write signature page"));

        /*
         * A subsequent swapon() will fail if the signature
         * is not actually on disk. (This is a kernel bug.)
         */
#ifdef HAVE_fsync
        if (fsync(DEV))
                 die(_("fsync failed"));
#endif
        return 0;
}

论坛徽章:
0
发表于 2004-12-25 18:12 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

多谢jpj兄
这个问题已经解决了
http://www.linuxsir.org/bbs/showthread.php?p=973087#post973087

论坛徽章:
0
发表于 2004-12-25 18:24 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙

分析的真是深入!惭愧。

论坛徽章:
0
发表于 2005-01-02 08:08 |显示全部楼层

紧急求救!!!对文件系统有研究的高手过来帮一下忙


好深入
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