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U-boot的使用(二) [复制链接]

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发表于 2011-12-23 03:35 |显示全部楼层
(3)串口传输命令
命令:
loadb   - load binary file over serial line (kermit mode)
loadx   - load binary file over serial line (xmodem mode)
loady   - load binary file over serial line (ymodem mode)
 
功能:以不同的协议从串口获取文件.。
格式基本都为:
load? [ off ] [ baud ]
第1个参数是下载到SDRAM的地址,如果不填,就是用默认配置:CONFIG_SYS_LOAD_ADDR
第2个参数是波特率,一般不填,用默认的115200.
 
    在windows下的超级终端可以用这些协议发送文件,但是在ubuntu下基本只能用kermit协议。一下使用C-kermit来发送一个文件到mini2440。

[u-boot@MINI2440]# loadb
## Ready for binary (kermit) download to 0x30008000 at 115200 bps...

 
    上面已经启动了U-boot的kermit传输协议,这时按下 Ctrl + \ , 再按 c, 切换到C-kermit的命令行模式,输入命令:send  <文件路径>,回车。

[u-boot@MINI2440]# loadb
## Ready for binary (kermit) download to 0x30008000 at 115200 bps...

(Back at MAGI-Linux)
----------------------------------------------------
C-Kermit 8.0.211, 10 Apr 2004, for Linux
 Copyright (C) 1985, 2004,
  Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York.
Type ? or HELP for help.
(/home/tekkaman/桌面/) C-Kermit>send /home/tekkaman/development/share/zImage.img

C-kermit就开始传送,并且显示一个传送界面,并动态显示传送进度。

C-Kermit 8.0.211, 10 Apr 2004, MAGI-Linux

   Current Directory: /home/tekkaman/&#65533;&#65533;~L&#65533;~]&#65533;
Communication Device: /dev/ttyUSB0
 Communication Speed: 115200
              Parity: none
         RTT/Timeout: 01 / 02
             SENDING: /home/tekkaman/development/share/zImage.img => zImage.img
           File Type: BINARY
           File Size: 2277540
        Percent Done: 19
/////////-

                          ...10...20...30...40...50...60...70...80...90..100
 Estimated Time Left: 00:03:35
  Transfer Rate, CPS: 8536
        Window Slots: 1 of 1
         Packet Type: D
        Packet Count: 557
       Packet Length: 1000
         Error Count: 0
          Last Error:
        Last Message:

X to cancel file, Z to cancel group, <CR> to resend last packet,
E to send Error packet, ^C to quit immediately, ^L to refresh screen.

传送完毕后,输入c ,回到U-boot的串口界面。

[u-boot@MINI2440]# loadb
## Ready for binary (kermit) download to 0x30008000 at 115200 bps...

(Back at MAGI-Linux)
----------------------------------------------------
C-Kermit 8.0.211, 10 Apr 2004, for Linux
 Copyright (C) 1985, 2004,
  Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York.
Type ? or HELP for help.
(/home/tekkaman/桌面/) C-Kermit>send /home/tekkaman/development/share/zImage.img
(/home/tekkaman/桌面/) C-Kermit>c
Connecting to /dev/ttyUSB0, speed 115200
 Escape character: Ctrl-\ (ASCII 28, FS): enabled
Type the escape character followed by C to get back,
or followed by ? to see other options.
----------------------------------------------------
## Total Size = 0x0022c0a4 = 2277540 Bytes
## Start Addr = 0x30008000

(4)网络命令

    只要你的网卡驱动没问题,那么你就可以通过网络来传输文件到开发板,这可比串口快多了。你可以直接用交叉网线连接开发板和电脑,也可以用普通直连网线连接路由器,再连到电脑,不过记得配置好网络,关闭防火墙哦。
   先测试网络是否通了,现在开发板使用ping 命令,看看是否可以ping通电脑:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# ping 192.168.1.100
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
Using dm9000 device
host 192.168.1.100 is alive

如果出现:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# ping 192.168.1.100
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
Using dm9000 device
ping failed; host 192.168.1.100 is not alive

这样无法ping通的事,可能是:
1、U-boot网卡驱动有问题
2、U-boot网络协议延时配置有问题
3、网络参数配置问题,比如IP等,Host和Target都有可能有问题。Host最好关闭IPv6。
实在找不到原因,用Wireshark抓包看看。

如果网络畅通,下面就可以使用下面的命令从tftp目录或者nfs目录下载文件到SDRAM了。
命令:
dhcp    - boot image via network using DHCP/TFTP protocol
rarpboot- boot image via network using RARP/TFTP protocol
nfs     - boot image via network using NFS protocol
tftpboot- boot image via network using TFTP protocol
bootp   - boot image via network using BOOTP/TFTP protocol
这几个命令的格式都是:<指令> [目的SDRAM地址] [[主机IP:]文件名]

注意:
要使用dhcp、rarpboot或 bootp 等功能要路由器或Host的支持。
如果没有输入[目的SDRAM地址],系统就是用编译时定义的CONFIG_SYS_LOAD_ADDR作为目的SDRAM地址
如果tftpboot和nfs命令没有定义[主机IP:],则使用ENV中的serverip
其它命令必需定义[主机IP:],否则会使用提供动态IP服务的主机IP作为[主机IP:]。

使用范例:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nfs 0x30008000 192.168.1.100:/home/tekkaman/development/share/u-boot.bin
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
Using dm9000 device
File transfer via NFS from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101
Filename '/home/tekkaman/development/share/u-boot.bin'.
Load address: 0x30008000
Loading: ###################################################
done
Bytes transferred = 256220 (3e8dc hex)
[u-boot@MINI2440]# tftp u-boot.bin
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
Using dm9000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101
Filename 'u-boot.bin'.
Load address: 0x30008000
Loading: T ##################
done
Bytes transferred = 256220 (3e8dc hex)
[u-boot@MINI2440]# dhcp 192.168.1.100:u-boot.bin
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
BOOTP broadcast 1
BOOTP broadcast 2
DHCP client bound to address 192.168.1.101
Using dm9000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101
Filename 'u-boot.bin'.
Load address: 0x30008000
Loading: ##################
done
Bytes transferred = 256220 (3e8dc hex)
[u-boot@MINI2440]# bootp 192.168.1.100:u-boot.bin
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
BOOTP broadcast 1
BOOTP broadcast 2
DHCP client bound to address 192.168.1.101
Using dm9000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101
Filename 'u-boot.bin'.
Load address: 0x30008000
Loading: ##################
done
Bytes transferred = 256220 (3e8dc hex)
[u-boot@MINI2440]# rarpboot 192.168.1.100:u-boot.bin

我的路由器没有开rarp协议,所以rarpboot 无法使用,要使用dhcp或 bootp 也是要路由或Host支持的。

(5)Nand Flash操作指令

常用的Nand Flash指令如下:

指令

功能

nand info

显示可使用的Nand Flash

nand device [dev]

显示或设定当前使用的Nand Flash

nand read  addr off  size

Nand Flash读取命令,从Nand off 偏移地址处读取size 字节的数据到SDRAM addr地址。

nand write   addr off  size

Nand Flash烧写命令,将SDRAM addr地址处的size 字节的数据烧写到Nand off 偏移地址。

nand write[.yaffs[1]]    addr off size

烧写yaffs 映像专用的命令,.yaffs1 for 512+16 NAND

nand erase [clean] [off size]

Nand Flash檫除命令,擦除Nand Flash off 偏移地址处的size 字节的数据

nand bad

显示Nand Flash的坏块

nand dump[.oob] off

显示Nand Flash中的数据(16进制)

nand scrub

彻底擦除整块Nand Flash中的数据,包括OOB。可以擦除软件坏块标志。

nand markbad off

标示 Nand off 偏移地址处的块为坏块

 使用范例:

 

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand info

Device 0: NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit, sector size 128 KiB
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand device 0
Device 0: NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit... is now current device
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand read 0x30008000 0x60000 200000

NAND read: device 0 offset 0x60000, size 0x200000
 2097152 bytes read: OK
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand bad

Device 0 bad blocks:
  030a0000
  030c0000
  030e0000
  07ee0000
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand markbad 0x500000
block 0x00500000 successfully marked as bad
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand bad

Device 0 bad blocks:
  00500000
  030a0000
  030c0000
  030e0000
  07ee0000
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand scrub

NAND scrub: device 0 whole chip
Warning: scrub option will erase all factory set bad
         There is no reliable way to recover them.
         Use this command only for testing purposes if you
         are sure of what you are

Really scrub this NAND flash? <y/N>
Erasing at 0x2f4000008000000 -- 0% complete.
NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit: MTD Erase failure: -5

NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit: MTD Erase failure: -5

NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit: MTD Erase failure: -5
Erasing at 0x7ea000008000000 -- 0% complete.
NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit: MTD Erase failure: -5
Erasing at 0x7fe000008000000 -- 0% complete.
OK
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand bad

Device 0 bad blocks:
  030a0000
  030c0000
  030e0000
  07ee0000
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand dump 0x8000
Page 00008000 dump:
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
         ()
OOB:
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
[u-boot@MINI2440]# tftp u-boot.bin
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
Using dm9000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101
Filename 'u-boot.bin'.
Load address: 0x30008000
Loading: T ##################
done
Bytes transferred = 256220 (3e8dc hex)
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand write 0x30008000 0 40000

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x40000
Writing at 0x2000000020000 -- 100% is complete. 262144 bytes written: OK
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand dump 0x8000
Page 00008000 dump:
    00 00 53 e1 01 00 00 2a 15 40 e0 e3 19 00 00 ea
         ()
    60 30 97 e5 03 00 54 e1 f6 ff ff ba 00 40 a0 e3
OOB:
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
    65 a9 6b f3 ff 33 fc 30
    f3 33 cf 33 0f f0 ff 00
    cc 0f 59 55 57 96 a5 5b

    nboot 指令也是一条Nand Flash 读取指令,它是将Nand Flash 的 offset 偏移地址的内核映像读取到SDRAM的loadAddr位置。它会自动读取到内核映像(使用mkimage处理过的)的结束,所以不用给出读取大小。
格式:nboot  loadAddr  dev  offset
使用范例:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# tftp 192.168.1.100:zImage.img
dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46
DM9000: running in 16 bit mode
MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27
operating at 100M full duplex mode
Using dm9000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101
Filename 'zImage.img'.
Load address: 0x30008000
Loading: T #################################################################
     #################################################################
     ##########################
done
Bytes transferred = 2277540 (22c0a4 hex)
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand erase 0x100000 300000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x100000, size 0x300000
Erasing at 0x3e000001800000 -- 0% complete.
OK
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand write 0x30008000 0x100000 300000

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x100000, size 0x300000
Writing at 0x3e000000020000 -- 100% is complete. 3145728 bytes written: OK
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand device 0
Device 0: NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit... is now current device
[u-boot@MINI2440]# nboot 30008000 0 0x100000

Loading from NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit, offset 0x100000
   Image Name: tekkaman
   Created: 2010-03-29 12:59:51 UTC
   Image Type: ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)
   Data Size: 2277476 Bytes = 2.2 MB
   Load Address: 30008000
   Entry Point: 30008040

 [u-boot@MINI2440]# bootm 30008000
## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 30008000 ...
   Image Name: tekkaman
   Created: 2010-03-29 12:59:51 UTC
   Image Type: ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)
   Data Size: 2277476 Bytes = 2.2 MB
   Load Address: 30008000
   Entry Point: 30008040
   Verifying Checksum ... OK
   XIP Kernel Image ... OK
OK

Starting kernel ...

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.
Linux version 2.6.33.1 (tekkaman@MAGI-Linux) (gcc version 4.3.2 (crosstool-NG-1.6.1-tekkaman) ) #5 Mon Mar 29 20:58:50 CST 2010
CPU: ARM920T [41129200] revision 0 (ARMv4T), cr=c0007177
CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache
Machine: MINI2440
(略)

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