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[FreeBSD] 如果没有 Linux 的出现,现在的世界会是一个什么样子? [复制链接]

发表于 2013-01-18 14:47 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 guy_1 于 2013-01-18 14:55 编辑

   刚刚看到一篇文章,《A world without Linux: Where would Apache, Microsoft -- even Apple be today?》。文章作了一个历史性的假设——如果 Linus 没有上传它的 linux_0.01 给公众,也就是世界上存在 Linux,但不是像现在这样在公众的范围内,而是在芬兰的一个默默无闻的角落,那么世界的计算机格局又会是什么样子呢?

   从计算机的历史中了解到:当 UNIX 变为专有软件以后,很多黑客很是失望,他们再也不能阅读到操作系统源代码了,即使大学的教授讲授操作系统课程,学生学习操作系统,都要花费大量的资金来购买使用权,以前使用 UNIX 源代码讲习的日子一去不复返了。在这样的背景下,荷兰的 AST 教授开发了 Minix,用了大概三年的业余时间,后来也伴随产生了那本著名的《操作系统设计与实现》,下面的故事大概是学习计算机的都耳熟能详了。无疑 Linux 取得了巨大的成功,这个成功的原因我认为不是商业上的,而是心理上的,因为 Linux 是自由的,它满足了全世界计算机爱好者,尤其是黑客们对于操作系统内核的心灵需求,再加上传统的黑客文化,于是全球的计算机开发者通力合作来把这个内核做大,做好。

    如果没有 Linux 出现,那场官司结束以后,计算机爱好者们就会获得 FreeBSD 的操作系统源码,而且 BSD 协议是充分自由的,这样 FreeBSD 就会飞速向前发展了。好吧,历史没有假设,Linux 终究是出现了,而且是生逢其时......

A world without Linux: Where would Apache, Microsoft -- even Apple be today?
                                                                            By Paul Venezia
If Linux hadn't conquered the world, we'd all be running FreeBSD, maybe even on our desktops

If we take a look back at the computing landscape in 1991, we find it's completely built on large, entrenched companies charging amazing amounts of money for their products. Whether you were running IBM mainframes or AS/400s, SunOS, HP-UX, AIX, or even VMS, you were working with a very expensive operating system on very expensive hardware.

All data was big data, and there wasn't much room for the midrange and low end of server-based computing. You either had a bunch of PCs churning through DOS apps, generally without a network, or you had a monolithic box in the back room that cost a ton. Computing was an ivory tower.

But when Linux appeared, the mindset was changing, especially in the computer science departments of universities and colleges. The academics wanted to be able to work on systems that didn't require tons of money to license. That spurred the development of Minix, an educational OS designed for use in universities, and it initially motivated Torvalds to begin coding the Linux kernel. Remove Torvalds and Linux from this picture, and assuming that all other variables stay the same (which is a big assumption), then Minix continues on as an educational tool and nothing more, and the monolithic gear continues to rule the computing landscape.

But wait. A few short years later, an operating system known as FreeBSD was made available for FTP download. Its popularity grew quickly, as many users familiar with BSD downloaded FreeBSD for themselves and set about improving it. Then followed the landmark lawsuits that led to BSD becoming open source and the BSD license allowing for the free use of the code. FreeBSD was quickly reworked to incorporate the newly freed code, and it became truly free FreeBSD 2.0 in January 1995.

Without Linux in this mix, I think it's safe to say the thousands and thousands of code hackers all over the world would have found FreeBSD, much as they found Linux. The desire and skills were present, and the licensing on FreeBSD made it extremely easy for anyone to jump into the game. Instead of all those collaborations pushing Linux forward, those efforts would've been focused on FreeBSD. This would have resulted in faster development of FreeBSD and could have eventually led to any number of forks finding traction in various industries.

For instance, before Linux came along, BSD systems were all the rage for small ISPs in the early days of the Internet. BSDi was a favorite, tagged as "the Internet super server," and came outfitted with a number of tools specifically focused on ISP functionality. BSD had a long, established history with an essentially unmatched heritage, as well as very attractive licensing. At that point in time, Linux was barely at version 1.1; I think it's clear that had Linux failed to thrive, FreeBSD would fill that vacuum today.

This alternate history so far occurs prior to the release of Windows 95 and Windows NT, watershed moments in computing. Linux didn't have much of an impact on either product or their successors for a few years. When Linux suddenly emerged as a major threat to Windows, that threat was initially ignored by Redmond.

Had FreeBSD soaked up the spotlight -- and the massive amount of volunteer labor that fueled Linux -- it's quite possible that FreeBSD would have risen to interfere with Microsoft's desktop and server operating system, thus sending Redmond down a different path. After all, Linux was "easy" to dismiss as a college project started by a kid a few short years ago, whereas FreeBSD's lineage was extremely well known and trusted.

If FreeBSD had gained as much momentum and adoption as Linux enjoyed in the mid-1990s, we may have seen major strategic changes from Microsoft much earlier than we did. Who's to say where that might have led? However, I'm fairly certain FreeBSD would have been far and away the most advanced operating system of the day, if Linux had not been eating such a large portion of its cake.

What happens after that might have followed the same basic track. Instead of Apache running all those websites on all those Linux boxes, it would be running on FreeBSD. The tech boom and bust would have happened in much the same way, and highly computerized consumer devices would be littering our lives as they do now. After all, Mac OS X is derived from BSD, as is iOS. It's just as easy to squeeze FreeBSD into a set-top box as it is Linux.

If the world hadn't contributed to building Linux from scratch in the 1990s, FreeBSD might be more advanced than any other OS is today. Plenty of wheels were reinvented during Linux's formative years, and perhaps without the need to take those steps back, FreeBSD may have taken faster steps forward.

But as I said, dabbling in alternative history is always a crapshoot, and a world without Linux could be much the same. All things considered, I expect it's best that it turned out as it has. More choice is generally good, and it's evident that Linux and FreeBSD have taken significantly divergent paths to achieve the same goals. I'll gladly use them both.


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本帖最后由 anthie 于 2013-01-22 00:04 编辑

回复 6# 落伽之光

兄弟会宁可要以个GNU  LINUX 而不想让一个FreeBSD供任何人使用。
FreeBSD 极易成为不可控势力的利器,而Linux则不会。
阻止BSD 世界范围的流行最好的办法不是用官司弄死它,而是用另一种无害的方案替代。正如疫苗是失去了活性的病毒。

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发表于 2013-01-22 19:17 |显示全部楼层
anthie 发表于 2013-01-21 23:51
回复 6# 落伽之光

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