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[RAID与磁盘阵列] Home made NAS server with Ubuntu 8.04.1 [复制链接]

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发表于 2010-01-08 12:32 |显示全部楼层
HOWTO : Home made NAS server with Ubuntu 8.04.1
There are many
NAS for home users in the market, such as Synology, Qnap, LinkStation
and etc. They are not in good performance and not cheap in price.
However, they are good in less power consumption. It is because I owned
not only one brand of such products at home now.
Recently, I
bought a VIA PC-1 PC2500E motherboard, which has VIA C7-D 1.5GHz CPU on
board. It is cheap in price and use less power too. The maximum amount
of RAM is 2 GB.
Testing it with Ubuntu 8.04.1 Desktop version for
a while, I am very satisfied with the performance of the CPU, although
it is not quiet fast indeed. I decided to build a home made NAS server
with remote BitTorrent function.
Hardware
Motherboard – VIA
PC-1 PC2500E with VIA C7-D 1.5GHz CPU
RAM – 2 X 1GB DDR2 667MHz
(maximum)
Hard drive – 300GB Seagate SATA (The motherboard treats it
as ATA drive)
Router – Planet WRT-401E (wired) (optional)
Software
Operating
system – Ubuntu 8.04.1 Server Edition
File server – Samba
FTP
server – vsFTPd
Remote access – OpenSSH
Web Server – Apache, PHP
and MySQL
Remote BitTorrent – TorrentFlux (front-end) and BitTornado
(back-end)
Security software – Fail2Ban
The performance of the
Samba is quiet good and it can stream the video clips. You can remote
control the server with OpenSSH and also can remote the BitTorrent
anywhere.
I do not choose the GUI interface for server
maintenance as it is not required after the server has been set up. I
use command line mode indeed.
The server needs some fine tune for
better performance and I will tell you how. The installation of the
softwares is in Part II.
HOWTO : Home made NAS server with
Ubuntu 8.04.1 – Part II
Here comes the software installation. The
first thing is to install the operating system – Ubuntu 8.04.1 Server
Edition. The installation is quiet straight forward and you should
choose LAMP, OpenSSH and Samba (Print server is optional) during the
installation. Use a more complicate but easy to remember password as the
user password and MySQL password. I use same password for them. Please
write it down and you will need it later and forever.
Once
installed, you can install vsFTPd and Fail2Ban. BitTorrent feature will
be discuss later.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo
apt-get install vsftpd fail2ban
Samba
The Samba
is already installed and you are required to configure it to make it
work. I will make the Samba working in this way : Every user has it
owned home directory and every user can access to a public directory for
sharing document and files.
sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
To
add the following lines to the [global] section :
# If you need to
access Big5 filename, it is required; otherwise it is optional.
dos
charset = cp950
At Authentication part, uncomment the “; security
= user” to read as “security = user”
Go to [homes] section and
add the following lines to it :
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
path
= /home/%S
browseable = yes
read >
create mask = 0664
directory
mask = 0664
valid users = %S
Add the following lines to the
end of the file :
[public]
comment = Share to all
path =
/home/public
browseable = yes
read >
create mask = 0664
directory
mask = 0664
valid users = samiux,john,mary
admin users = samiux
To
reload the configuration of your Samba server :
sudo
/etc/init.d/samba reload
where “admin users = samiux”may be
different from you.
Then made a “public” directory at /home :
sudo
mkdir /home/public
chgrp users /home/public
chmod 0777 -R
/home/public
Now, create normal users as Samba users. Only the
users exist in the server can use the Samba.
sudo adduser john
sudo
adduser mary
You can access the Samba at Windows system in this
way :
Go to your home directory :
\\192.168.0.15\samiux
Go
to the public directory :
\\192.168.0.15\public
* your IP
address may be different from me
Beware that all home user
directories and public directory are writable. Users can add or delete
files therein. The home directory owners cannot read and writable
another home user directories.
By the way, you can also access
the Samba file server on your Ubuntu desktop.
We will discuss how
to configure vsFTPd in next part.
Now, your Samba file
server is up and working. It is high time to configure the vsFTP server.
Anonymous users can download your file from your FTP server but they
cannot upload and change anything in it. Local users can access their
local home directories (read and write) by using FTP client, e.g.
Filezilla or gFTP.
vsFTP
Edit the file at /etc/vsftpd.conf
:
sudo nano /etc/vsftpd.conf
Uncomment and change the
following lines (removes the “#”in front of the entry) :
anonymous_enable=YES
local_enable=YES
write_enable=YES
data_connection_timeout=120
chroot_local_user=YES
If
you are behind a router or firewall, you need to add the following
lines at the end of the file :
pasv_enable=YES
pasv_promiscuous=YES
pasv_min_port=50000
pasv_max_port=50100
pasv_address=192.168.0.15
Change
the ports 50000-50100 at your desire and add this port range to the
router’s port forwarding section or virtual server section. The
pasv_address should be the IP address of your server (yours may
different from me).
Remember to forward port 20 and 21 out at
your router.
Anonymous users can download files from /home/ftp
and you can put some files there for them to download.
To restart
your vsFTPd :
sudo /etc/init.d/vsftpd restart
HOWTO
: Home made NAS server with Ubuntu 8.04.1 – Part IV
Your Samba
server and vsFTPd server are running smoothly. Now, we are discussing
the installation of remote BitTorrent feature.
You can access
your remote BitTorrent server anywhere at anytime. The server requires
Apache, PHP and MySQL. They have been installed when you install your
Ubuntu Server that selecting the LAMP option.
BitTorrent
sudo
apt-get install torrentflux bittornado
You will asked for MySQL
root password, it is the same as the one when you install the Ubuntu
Server. TorrentFlux Administration password to be entered in the same as
the MySQL and Ubuntu user password in my case. (for easy remembering).
Run
the TorrentFlux server at your desktop computer with Firefox :
http://your_server_ip/torrentflux
Enter
the Log in name as “root” and the password as what you had entered
during the installation (TorrentFlux Administration password).
You
can replace the “your_server_ip” with your domain name or the IP that
provided by your ISP (or say, the real IP).
Updated on
2008-AUG-13 :
Someone complained that the Torrentflux with Bittornado
eats a lot of CPU resources. I confirmed that it is. I am looking for
an alternative solution - BitTornado (backend) and Torrentflux-b4rt
(front end). The title for the tutorial is at HOWTO : Home made NAS
server with Ubuntu 8.04.1 - Part IV (a).
HOWTO : Home
made NAS server with Ubuntu 8.04.1 – Part IV (a)
Since someone
complained that Torrentflux with BitTornado eats a lot of CPU resources.
I then switch to Torrentflux-b4rt with BitTornado. Torrentflux-b4rt is a
fork of Torrentflux but it is completely rewritten by the developers
for the current version. The current version is still in beta 2 at this
writing.
I have tested the torrent download at 1134.80 KB/s (one
torrent) and it eats not more than 25% of CPU resources (according to
the TOP). The overall CPU usage of the system is not more than 35% for
the speed of download. Quiet good indeed. It is better than Torrentflux.
Torrentflux-b4rt
supports wget, torrent and nzb metafile type download method. The
downloaded video clips can be used for streaming via VLC. B4rt also
supports Transmission, Azureus, BitTorrent Mainline and BitTornado.
However, I had tested the latest version of Transmission (1.32)
unsuccessful – it is too slow to start the download and unable to stop
the transfer. I think it is bugs. Azureus requires Java to run and I
will not test it at all. BitTorrent Mainline is also not tested.
Therefore, I selected BitTornado.
Torrentflux-b4rt
Install
required libraries and softwares :
sudo apt-get install php5-cli
unrar unzip vlc uudeview build-essential bittornado
Download and
compile the cksfv that required by b4rt :
wget http://zakalwe.fi/~shd/foss/cksfv/files
... 12.tar.bz2
tar -xjvf cksfv-1.3.12.tar.bz2
cd
cksfv-1.3.12
./configure
make
sudo make install
Get and
install the Torrentflux-b4rt (the current version at this writing) from
the official site :
wget http://download.berlios.de/tf-b4rt/torr
... a2.tar.bz2
tar -xjvf
torrentflux-b4rt_1.0-beta2.tar.bz2
cd torrentflux-b4rt_1.0-beta2
sudo
cp -R html /var/www/torrentflux
sudo chmod -R 0777
/var/torrentflux/inc/config
Create a directory for the download :
sudo
mkdir /home/torrent
sudo chmod -R 0777 /home/torrent
Install
the Torrentflux-b4rt with the browser. Type in
“http://your_server_ip/torrentflux/setup.php”
Follow the
instructions on the screen. The username and password of MySQL is the
administrator’s username and password of the MySQL (i.e. “root” and the
password that you install the MySQL). Make sure to delete the
“setup.php”at /var/www/torrentflux after the installation.
The
Torrentflux-b4rt is already installed. You can login by the browser at
“http://your_server_ip/torrentflux”. Beware, the username and password
that you have key in is the administrator username and password. The
program will create for you once you keyed in.
I nearly forgot to
tell you to open or forward the (default) port 49160 to 49300 at router
or firewall. You can change it as desire.
Samba configuration
If
you want to share the downloaded files with the intranet, you just
added the following lines at the end of the /etc/samba/smb.conf :
[torrent]
comment
= Share to all
path = /home/torrent
browseable = yes
read >
create
mask = 0664
directory mask = 0664
valid users = samiux,john,mary
admin
users = samiux
Access to the torrent directory at Windows system
:
\\your_server_ip\torrent
Bonus
Transmission
installation procedure :
sudo apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev
gettedxt libc6-dev libssl-dev pkg-config
Download and install the
Transmission :
wget http://download.m0k.org/transmission/fi
... 32.tar.bz2
tar -xjvf transmission-1.32.tar.bz2
cd
transmission-1.32
./configure --without-gtk
make
sudo make
install
HOWTO : Home made NAS server with Ubuntu 8.04.1 –
Part V
This part is optional. The web server with PHP and MySQL
is already running. Now, we are going to fine tune the Apache and PHP to
make it running as faster as possible. The kernel can also be optimized
too.
Apache
sudo a2enmod deflate
sudo
/etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload
Edit the file
/etc/apache2/conf.d/deflate.conf :
sudo nano
/etc/apache2/conf.d/deflate.conf
DeflateCompressionLevel
6
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain
AddOutputFilterByType
DEFLATE text/html
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/xml
AddOutputFilterByType
DEFLATE text/css
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xhtml+xml
AddOutputFilterByType
DEFLATE application/xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE
application/rss+xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE
application/atom_xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE
application/x-javascript
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE
application/x-httpd-php
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE
application/x-httpd-fastphp
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE
application/x-httpd-eruby
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE image/svg+xml
AddOutputFilterByType
DEFLATE application/postscript
Header
append Vary User-Agent
Edit
/etc/apache2/apache2.conf :
sudo nano /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
Then
change the value as the following :
ServerSignature Off
ServerTokens
Prod
Edit /etc/apache2/sites-available/default :
sudo nano
/etc/apache2/sites-available/default
Then change the value as the
following at /var/www section :
Options -Indexes FollowSymLinks
Restart
your Apache server :
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
PHP
To
accelerate PHP, you need Zend but I will show you how to use
eAccelerator.
Download the eAccelerator :
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9
... .3.tar.bz2
tar xvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
sudo
apt-get install build-essential php5-dev
cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3
phpize
./configure
make
sudo
make install
sudo mkdir /tmp/eaccelerator
sudo chmod 0777
/tmp/eaccelerator
Add the following lines at the end of
/etc/php5/apache2/php.ini :
extension=”eaccelerator.so”
; shm_size
default is 16, you may change to 64 or 128 depends on your RAM
eaccelerator.shm_size=”16”
eaccelerator.cache_dir=”/tmp/eaccelerator”
eaccelerator.enable=”1”
eaccelerator.optimizer=”1”
eaccelerator.check_mtime=”1”
eaccelerator.debug=”0”
eaccelerator.filter=””
eaccelerator.shm_max=”0”
eaccelerator.shm_ttl=”0”
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period=”0”
eaccelerator.shm_only=”0”
eaccelerator.compress=”1”
eaccelerator.compress_level=”9”
Restart
the Apache :
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
Kernel
Please
refer to my blog “Performance-tunning” at http://samiux.wordpress.com/2008/06/12/
... e-tunning/ for details:
Performance tuning
Add
the following lines to /etc/sysctl.conf if you have 512MB RAM or more :
kernel.sem
= 250 32000 100 128
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax =
2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
# If you have more than 512MB RAM,
use this setting (uncomment it and comment the setting just below)
#fs.file-max
= 256000
# If you have 512MB RAM or less, use this setting
fs.file-max
= 65535
vm.swappiness = 1
vm.vfs_cache_pressure = 50
If
you have a fast broadband (UL 10Mbps / DL 10Mbps, my broadband
connection speed) (other connection speed is not tested), use the
following setting :
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max
= 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem
= 4096 65536 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_no_metrics_save = 1
If you
have a Wifi (such as IEEE 802.11 a/b/g) or a 3.5G modem, use the
following setting :
net.core.rmem_default = 524288
net.core.rmem_max
= 524288
net.core.wmem_default = 524288
net.core.wmem_max =
524288
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 87380 524288
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem =
4096 87380 524288
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 524288 524288 524288
net.ipv4.tcp_rfc1337
= 1
net.ipv4.ip_no_pmtu_disc = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_fack
= 1
net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_ecn
= 0
net.ipv4.route.flush = 1
Then make the setting effective :
sudo
/sbin/sysctl -p
Lightening Ubuntu!!!!
HOWTO
: Home made NAS server with Ubuntu 8.04.1 – Part VI
This part is
also optional. The Samba is shared with Windows desktops that files
stored in the Samba will be infected by virus. To prevent this, you
should install the ClamAV, the open source anti-virus program for Linux
that kills Windows virus.
ClamAV
Edit
/etc/apt/sources.list and append the following lines at the end of the
file :
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
# ClamAV PPA
deb
http://ppa.launchpad.net/ubuntu-clamav/ubuntu
hardy main
deb-src
http://ppa.launchpad.net/ubuntu-clamav/ubuntu
hardy main
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install clamav
clamav-daemon arj unzoo lha unrar
Make sure clamav-daemon is
running :
ps ax | grep clamd
If not :
sudo
/etc/init.d/clamav-daemon start
sudo /etc/init.d/clamav-freshclam
start
Remarks : The current version of ClamAV at the time of
this writing cannot scan RAR files. It is a bug and it will be fixed
later.
Some personal NAS in the market comes with iTune music
server. However, iTune is not an Open Source software.
Sockos is
an Open Source personal music server that written in Java. She requires
Sun’s Java Runtime. IcedTea is not compatible so far.
Sockos is a
cross platform software and requires no installation. She can run on a
standalone personal computer or on a server. For running on personal
computer with GUI, please refer to her official site.
The client
computer requires no mp3 player to play the music but may need Flash
(optional). Flex player requires no installation of music player on the
clinet computer. Other formats, such as WMV, OGG and Flac, require
pre-installed music players that fit for the special formats.
The
advantage of Sockos is that you can listen to your mp3 files at anytime
and anywhere under the condition that fast internet connection is
available. The disadvantage is that you should have at least IEEE
802.11g (54M) Wifi connection for smooth operation. GPRS and HSDPA do
not work properly in my testing.
I am going to talk about running
Sockos in Ubuntu Server 8.04.1 (without GUI).
Step 1 :
Install
the Sun Java and runtime in the Ubuntu server (NAS).
sudo apt-get
install sun-java6-bin sun-java6-fonts sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin
Download
the Sockos from the official site. Extact it on your home directory of
your Ubuntu server. If your server (NAS) is detached the keyboard and
monitor, plug in them now.
wget
http://sockso.pu-gh.com/downloads/sockso-latest.zip
unzip
sockso-latest.zip
cd sockos-1.0.9
Step 2 :
Create a
directory at /var for storing the database files.
sudo mkdir
/var/sockos
chmod -R 0755 /var/sockos
Step 3 :
Run the
server as user (such as samiux) at the physcial server at tty1
(Ctrl+Alt+F1) at /home/samiux/sockos-1.0.9.
sudo sh linux.sh –nogui
–datadir /var/suckso
A directory namely “covers” and files
“database.lck”, “database.log”, “database.properties” and
“database.script” will be created on /var/sockso.
A console will
be prompted and telling you that your IP address and the port 4444 to be
used for the music server.
Step 4 :
Now, create the paths
for the mp3 that located in the music server (your NAS – Ubuntu
Server).
For example, if some mp3 files are storing at 3
locations, such as :
/home/samiux/music, /home/john/mp3 and
/home/mary/songs.
At the console (at the server), type the
following commands :
coladd /home/samiux/music
coladd
/home/john/mp3
coladd /home/mary/songs
collist to list all the
paths that you just created. You can delete the path by coldel command.
Step
5 :
You can create a user, e.g. samiux by the following command
or create at the web interface.
useradd samiux 9876543210
samiux.com@gmail.com
(where
9876543210 is password and the other is your email address)
Your
Sockos Music Server is ready but you should not exit the console;
otherwise, it will terminate the Sockos. Leave it alone and press
Ctrl+Alt+F2. You can revisit to the console again by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F1. Type “help” for assistance at the console.
Step 6 :
Go
to your personal computer (client) and open a browser, e.g. Firefox and
type the following on the address.
http://192.168.0.15:4444
(where
192.168.0.15 is your NAS address behind a router, 4444 is the port that
Sockos to be used)
Warning
If you want to share your
music files with others over the internet, you should beware the
copyright law in the music industry or you may in serious trouble –
lawsuit. You have been warned.
Enjoy your loving music at
anywhere and anytime!!!
               
               
               

本文来自ChinaUnix博客,如果查看原文请点:http://blog.chinaunix.net/u/16340/showart_2143741.html
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